The 4 main parts of the roots and their functions – Roots are usually the underground part of the plant’s body that helps it attach itself to the soil and absorb water and minerals from the soil.

Roots are sometimes twisted and modified to store food reserves found in sweet potato, radish and carrot plants. They are also modified for respiration (eg the roots of mangrove trees) and additional support (eg the aerial roots of banyan trees).

Origin and development

The developing embryo or root is the first part to emerge from the seed during its germination, which then forms shape primer That is roots Plant. The primary root then divides to form Akar Sekunder Wanna tertiary And hairline To complete the root system.

What are the main parts of a plant’s root system?

The root system of a typical plant consists of four distinct sections or regions: 1) Root cover part , 2) cell division zone or meristem zone, 3) elongation zone, And 4) Zone of maturity or differentiation. Each root zone performs a specific function. Except for the root cap, the other three regions are collectively referred to as the “root tip region”.

root part

1 part root cover

The root tip is protected by a multicellular (more than one cell) structure called the root cap. The root cap cells are always in a state of division, so as the roots penetrate the soil, they constantly renew themselves and increase in number.


  • Brings water and minerals from the soil
  • Protects sensitive tissue that grows into the roots
  • Secretes thick mucus which helps the roots penetrate the soil
  • communication with soil microorganisms

Root caps are absent in some aquatic and parasitic plants, where they are replaced by more specialized structures called root pockets. They also lack the protective function of a root cap and the ability to divide.

Cell division into 2 parts (meristem)

It is located a few millimeters above the root cap. Cells in the meristem zone are usually small, thin-walled and contain dense protoplasm. Meristem cells have three layers: i) dermis – outermost layer, ii) pleromium – middle layer, and iii) peribellum – innermost layer.


  • Perform cell division to produce new cells for root development
  • helps in root elongation

3-segment extension

It is located next to the meristematic region. They are not capable of cell division.


  • Helps increase the length and size of root cells that have lost their ability to reproduce.
  • Helps absorb water and minerals from the soil

4 parts of maturity or differentiation

Located next to the elongation zone, it is also called the piliferous zone. They develop as elongation zone cells and differentiate and mature into specialized tissues such as root hairs, endoderm, and cortex.


  • Keeps plants and trees attached to the ground
  • Root hairs form specialized tissues such as xylem and phloem that help in the absorption and conduction of water and soil minerals.